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Writing Titles

Pile of books

These Books Have Titles

How do you format a book or movie title? Italics or quotation marks? Here are the rules for any kind of title you might use, and some you probably never will.

Headline Style

Write all titles in headline style. That’s to say, capitalize most—but not all—of the words; see Headline Styling to learn which ones. Other languages, however, have their own rules about these things, so if your title is in a foreign language, don’t mess with it:

  • The French movie La cage aux folles was remade as The Birdcage, though where birds come into it I don’t know.

In bibliographies, some people write titles in regular sentence style instead of headline style. Feel free to do this if for some reason you wish to make your life more complicated.

Italics and Quotation Marks

Almost all titles are further set apart by either italics or quotation marks. During the age of the typewriter, underlining was an acceptable substitute for italics, but these days it’s likely to be mistaken for a Web link and is therefore best avoided. Underlining does come in handy when you’re writing longhand, but who does that anymore?

When you’re italicizing a title that already contains a word in italics, the two italics cancel each other out, like sound waves, and the word is written in regular (roman) font:

  • Her Aquanet-laced memoir was called Notes From the Girls’ Bathroom Circa 1987.

If you’re putting quotation marks around a title that already contains quotation marks, use single marks inside and double marks outside:

  • The Tragic Death of Joe ‘Train-Wrestler’ Johnson” is a famous 1930s folk song.

Now you know how to use italics and quotation marks, but the tricky question is when to use them.

Titles of Books (and Book-Type Stuff)

Write book titles in italics, even if you’re friendly enough with the book to refer to it by an abbreviation such as OED (that’s the Oxford English Dictionary for you non-language-geeks).

Enclose titles of short stories and essays in quotation marks. Also use quotation marks for the titles of book chapters or other book parts, but note that this only applies to titles—just mentioning chapter 3 or the introduction doesn’t require quotation marks or capital letters.

  • Kafka’s short story “Metamorphosis” is a favourite of depressives and entomologists.
  • The second chapter of A Room With a View is ominously titled “In Santa Croce With No Baedeker.”

Write the titles of book series and editions in headline style without either quotes or italics:

  • In Churchill, Manitoba, the His Dark Materials series has led to a rash of disappointed polar-bear tourists.

Movie and TV Titles

Write the titles of movies and television shows in italics. TV episodes, however, should be written with quotation marks. Should you ever find yourself writing the title of a radio show, treat it the same as a TV show.

  • One of the best—and longest—movie titles is Dr. Strangelove, or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb.
  • Law and Disorder” is the infamous Brady Bunch episode in which the actor who played Greg was stoned during filming.

Titles of Web Sites

The titles of Web sites should be written in headline style without quotation marks or italics. For the titles of all other online materials, the Chicago Manual of Style recommends the same treatment as print materials: italicize titles of book-length items and use quotation marks with titles of article-length items.

  • I found the article “How to Remove Tapestries From Anthills” on the Useless Tips site.

Magazine and Newspaper Titles

Italicize the titles of magazines, periodicals, journals, and newspapers. If a title starts with the, write the word in lower case and don’t italicize it. Use quotation marks for the titles of articles, but italicize titles of newspaper sections that are published separately.

  • A precocious child, he liked his parents to read to him from the Economist at bedtime.
  • I photocopied “Tying Flies and Flying Ties: A Deconstruction of Masculinity” from last month’s Postmodern Angler.
  • Her latest novel was ruthlessly eviscerated in the New York Times Book Review.

Titles of Plays, Poems, and Music

Italicize the titles of plays:

  • In his opinion, the gay subtext of The Importance of Being Ernest is barely sub.

Write poem titles with quotation marks. Book-length poems are an exception; their titles should be italicized. Untitled poems use their first lines as titles. In these cases, use quotation marks but not headline style; that is, don’t add any capital letters beyond those already in the first line.

  • Memorizing “There Once Was a Girl From Nantucket” does not make you a connoisseur of poetry.
  • Most readers relish the torments of Dante’s Inferno but lose interest in the holier thrills of his Paradiso.
  • I love the unexpected imagery of e.e. cummings’s “the Cambridge ladies who live in furnished souls.”

Treat music titles much the same as poems: italicize titles of operas and long compositions, but put titles of ordinary-length songs in quotation marks. Album titles should be italicized.

  • Die Fledermaus is an opera about a giant bat running amok in 19th-century Germany.
  • If you sing “The Piña Colada Song” one more time, I’m going to throttle you.
  • Pink Floyd’s The Dark Side of the Moon and MGM’s The Wizard of Oz make an eerie combination.

Titles of Works of Art

Italicize the titles of paintings, statues, drawings, comic strips, and other works of art. The only exceptions are photograph titles, which you should put in quotation marks, and works of art from ancient times, which are so familiar they don’t need marks or italics.

  • Looking at Picasso’s Guernica gave the general indigestion.
  • Far from refreshing her, the family holiday made her feel like the subject of Dorothea Lange’s famous “Migrant Mother” photo.
  • The Venus de Milo is best known for what she lacks: arms.

These complicated and rather arbitrary rules may be tiresome, but they’re worth memorizing if you want to look intelligent. After all, there’s no point in pompously citing Foucault’s Madness and Civilization or Dalí’s The Persistence of Memory if you flub the delivery and undermine your intellectual street cred.

Quote Me: How to Use Quotation Marks

 

Quotation marks and naked ladies

The Strategic Placement of Quotation Marks

Quotation marks quarantine words from the rest of your sentence. They set words apart, and they usually have very good reasons for it. Here you’ll find some of these reasons, as well as tips on how to keep your quotation marks from becoming tangled up in your other punctuation.

Isn’t It Ironic?

Lots of people slap quotation marks around anything they want to emphasize, in the misguided belief that these marks exist to make words stand out. In fact, a single word in quotation marks usually means the opposite of what it says:

  • This member of the “weaker” sex routinely wrestled alligators before breakfast.

The words so-called express the same thing without quotation marks:

  • This member of the so-called weaker sex routinely wrestled alligators before breakfast.

So “fresh” apples suggests something wormy, while an “employment” opportunity probably involves a balaclava and a sawed-off shotgun.

Weird Words and Slang

Quotation marks set apart technical terms or obscure slang—anything the reader might find unfamiliar:

  • Upon achieving “satori,” or oneness with all beings, the monk ran to the pub and bought everyone drinks.

Don’t overdo it, though, as putting widely familiar terms in quotation marks will only make you look hopelessly out of touch:

  • As I “tweeted” on my phone and drank “chai” at my local cafe, I felt like quite the “hipster”! (Please avoid this, for everyone’s sake.)

When you’re writing about words, quotation marks clarify your subject:

  • “Antidisestablishmentarianism” is a word better known for its length than its meaning.

Or you can use italics instead:

  • The songwriter apparently plugged in baby whenever he found himself at a loss for words.

Speech, Speech!

Quotation marks, as we all know, show when someone is speaking:

  • “Don’t worry, darling,” she purred. “We’re all friends here.”

They also show when you’re repeating someone else’s words:

  • In The Little Prince Antoine de Saint-Exupéry wrote, “It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye.”

If you decide to set apart quoted text in some other way—by indenting it, for example—quotation marks become overkill and should be left out:

  • In The Little Prince Antoine de Saint-Exupéry wrote,

It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye.

Put quotation marks around an expression to keep it from blundering confusingly through the rest of your sentence:

  • Even his dog gave him the old “It’s not you, it’s me” routine.
  • Her screenplay had the usual “Boy meets girl. Boy loses girl. Boy gets eaten by zombies” plotline.

Titles of articles, essays, short stories, poems, songs, book chapters, and television episodes should be enclosed in quotation marks (more on this here):

  • “Law and Disorder” is the infamous Brady Bunch episode in which the actor who played Greg was stoned during filming.

When Punctuation Collides

Using quotation marks with other punctuation can be tricky, and it doesn’t help that there are two sets of rules—US and British. When a comma or a period is not part of the quoted matter, British writers leave it outside the quotation marks. American writers, on the other hand, like to keep commas and periods inside the quotation marks under all circumstances. Canadians, of course, are free to be confused by both systems.

  • British rules: One teacher called her “impossible”, another “diabolical”.
  • US rules: One teacher called her “impossible,” another “diabolical.”
  • British & US: The aliens announced, “We’ve come for your poodles.”
  • British & US: “I’ve made more balloon animals than you’ve had hot dinners,” the clown said wearily.

In the third example, the final period is part of the aliens’ sentence, so even the Brits keep it inside the quotation marks. Similarly, in the fourth example the comma after dinners stands in for the final period of the clown’s speech.

Note that a comma goes before speech (as in the third example) but isn’t needed for quoted words that flow easily with the rest of the sentence (as in the first and second examples). If you’re not sure whether to use a comma or not, read the sentence out loud and put in a comma if you naturally pause:

  • He never would have told her to “keep the home fires burning” if he’d known her history of pyromania.
  • He told her, “Playing with matches is all very well, but a good insurance policy will keep you warm at night.”

Fortunately, all nationalities agree that exclamation points, question marks, colons, semicolons, and dashes should snuggle up to the words they’re attached to. That is, they belong inside quotation marks if they’re part of the quoted matter and outside if not:

  • Her essay in Comics Today, “Pow! Zap!”, was well received by fanboys.
  • I can’t believe they offered him a lifetime supply of chocolate and he said “no”!
  • How can you possibly forget the words to “Kumbayah”?
  • She asked wistfully, “Wherefore art thou Romeo?” though her boyfriend’s name was Bob.
  • For the next class read “From Weapon to Toy: A Concise History of the Yo-yo” in Modern Collector; the pamphlet “Walking the Dog and Other Tricks”; and “Yo-Yo Ma: American Cellist.”
  • Remember those touching words from Queen’s “Bohemian Rhapsody”: “Scaramouche! Scaramouche! Will you do the fandango?”
  • “Lice have certainly”—he paused and scratched his head—“never been a problem at this school.”

If you find yourself in a situation where you need two sets of quotation marks at once, use single marks for the inside pair:

  • “I just saw him giving his ‘sister’ a snog!” she snapped.

Quotation marks are pretty straightforward. Just remember to be consistent—pick a set of rules and stick to them like tar—and to save your punctuation for when you really need it.